Bronx-Whitestone Bridge

Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, New York, NY, USA
This 60 year old suspension bridge is currently undergoing a major rehabilitation involving the replacement of the deck system and the addition of both aerodynamic and structural enhancements to improve its performance in strong wind conditions. A series of detailed wind tunnel tests were performed to assist the designers in this rehabilitation effort. A full-scale monitoring programme has been undertaken to assess the wind conditions at the site, to confirm the behaviour of the existing bridge and to verify the aerodynamic behaviour through the rehabilitation. The primary concern for this structure is the potential of large amplitude motions in the first symmetric torsional mode of the bridge, which is similar in cross section to the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge.

Sunshine Skyway Bridge

Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa, Florida, USA
The Sunshine Skyway Bridge, at the entrance to Tampa Bay, Florida is one of the longest prestressed concrete bridges in the world with a main span of 366 metres. The safety of the bridge against hurricane force winds was a prime objective. A Monte-Carlo Hurricane simulation was performed in addition to experimental studies involving a 1 to 80 scale section model of the deck and a 1 to 375 scale full aeroelastic model of the entire bridge. The full model was tested in turbulent boundary layer flow conditions, representative of those at the project site. A design methodology was developed which integrated the results of the section model tests, the theoretical modal characteristics of the prototype as well as the wind climate. Equivalent Static Wind Loads were evaluated for the critical double cantilever construction stage as well as the completed bridge.

Confederation Bridge 

Confederation Bridge, Prince Edward Island, Canada
In addition to conventional section and full aeroelastic model studies, an integrated design methodology was developed for the Confederation Bridge Project. An examination of full aeroelastic model test data was made in order to provide dynamic wind load coefficients compatible with this new design methodology. Modal Load Distribution Functions were used both as a means to extract the essential information from the wind tunnel tests that enabled the design engineers to apply the loads in a rational manner to the design of the prototype.

Tsing Ma Bridge 

Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
The Tsing Ma Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the world carrying road and rail traffic, with a main span of 377m. Section model studies were performed.   Full Aeroelastic model tests were carried out for different erection phases, with effects of the local topography included.  This effectively provided the contractor assurances of stability and provided important definitions of wind loads during construction, aiding in the planning of the construction sequencing in this Typhoon-prone area of the world.

 Baltic Millennium Footbridge

Baltic Millennium Footbridge, Gateshead, United Kingdom
The Baltic Millennium Footbridge, between Gateshead and Newcastle over the River Tyne in the UK, is a unique structure, with span of 105 metres.  The structure incorporates aerodynamically shaped deck with a footpath and cycleway in a horizontal curve, which rotates along with the arch and cable system through a system of hydraulic rams at the arch springing to allow shipping traffic to pass beneath the bridge.  The prime objectives of the wind tunnel studies were to demonstrate the safety of the structure under various stages of operation, both with respect to aerodynamic stability as well as the effects of common wind speeds.  Pedestrian comfort and the definition of an envelope of wind speeds for safe operating conditions for the arch opening were prime concerns.

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